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Cannabis Freedom Is Stalled In Washington, DC

Dani Davis



Dominique Easley first relied on cannabis to help him break an addiction to opioids he was prescribed to deal with the pain from multiple football injuries suffered in both his college and pro football career.

As Easley explains, medical cannabis, legal in California, helped him sleep and gave him a path to begin self-healing. His younger sister, too, has been helped by cannabis in her lifelong fight against fibromyalgia.

Easley’s college teammate Jordan Reed, who won all-pro accolades in the National Football League, was never an opioid user. He began exploring cannabis after several concussions and a second foot surgery and became convinced of its value as a holistic medicine for fighting pain and depression.

While Reed was investing in legal cannabis in Colorado, and later in other states, Easley pursued licenses in New Jersey. The two joined eventually joined forces to form BPH Legacy Partners with other investors to seek multiple cannabis licenses, with a focus on rural areas with high minority populations plagued by opioid addiction.

As they tell their stories of the benefits of cannabis use, Easley and Reed also spread awareness that historic suppression of African Americans is behind the prohibition of the medicinal herb. The pair seek to remove the federal Schedule I listing that even bars marijuana research and to remove barriers to minority participation in legal cannabis enterprises.

Schedule I and the Ban on Cannabis Research

President Roosevelt’s 1937 Marijuana Tax Act was driven by overt racism, as newspapers proclaimed that “this stuff makes white women and black men have sex. Yet marijuana was listed as a legal medicine in the United States until 1942.

Attorney General John Mitchell declared marijuana a Schedule I drug under the 1970 Controlled Substances Act, fueled by President Nixon’s eagerness to prosecute the antiwar left and black males. Nixon’s own Shafer Commission had declared cannabis as safe as alcohol, but the Schedule I listing declared it a drug with no medical value and a high potential for abuse.

The DEA overruled an unscheduling recommendation by Francis Young, a DEA administrative law judge, who had declared that, “Marijuana, in its natural form, is one of the safest therapeutically active substances known to man.”  Four other petitions also bit the dust.

According to the Drug Policy Alliance, the DEA still justifies the Schedule I listing on the  lack of research and continues to bar private laboratories from engaging in scientific research into its beneficial qualities. Their intransigence is baffling to state lawmakers, physicians, and citizens as well as to foreign researchers, who have demonstrated multiple beneficial uses for cannabinoids.

The latest  Gallup Poll shows overwhelming public support for full legalization or decriminalization (removing the Schedule I stigma). Meanwhile, opioids, which are under Schedule I, killed nearly 50,000 Americans in 2019, up from just 21,000 in 2010. Virtually no one dies from using cannabis, yet federal action has not been forthcoming, most recently because of President Biden’s lifelong opposition to legalization.

Pitfalls for Minority Entry into Cannabis Marketing

Since California in 1999 legalized marijuana for medical uses, the Golden State and many others have made the herb legal for medical and recreational use. Some have also begun to expunge prior criminal convictions for marijuana-related offenses. Yet the Nixon-Mitchell race-based prohibitions remain federal law.

Black disenfranchisement fueled by Schedule I has also led to asset poverty, which provides an effective bar to entry into the cannabis business.  As of 2020, white households owned 85.5 percent of the nation’s wealth; white per capita net worth averaged  $ 437,000, four times that of black Americans.

Under Schedule I,  the DEA has the authority to prosecute any financial transaction involving the proceeds of cannabis-related businesses as money laundering under federal law. As the American Bankers Association acknowledged in 2019, “Current federal law prevents banks from safely banking these [cannabis] businesses.”

The ABA endorsed the creation of  “a banking-specific solution that would . . . allow banks to serve cannabis-related businesses in states where the activity is legal.” Meanwhile, cannabis-related businesses lack access to credit and require massive amounts of cash for entry.  Some banks now accept deposits from cannabis businesses, but conventional financing options remain taboo.

Some states, despite their own high fees, have instituted “equity” programs to reverse the wrongs of past prohibition or create a more inclusive cannabis industry. Yet even where these exist, there have been mixed results.

Michigan requires a $6,000 state application fee, $66,000 in state regulatory assessments, a $5,000 local municipality application fee, and proof of  $200,000 in assets. Yet only half of a dozen of the state’s first 233 cannabis licenses went to majority minority-owned enterprises. In response, Michigan created a microbusiness licensing program that opens doors for new entrepreneurs and small business owners.

The Maryland Medical Cannabis Commission admitted that only 10% of investors in the state’s cannabis were people of color, and most of those owned only small shares in licensed companies. The state legalized medical marijuana in 2017, and in 2018 created “diversity points” for qualifying applicants in a backdoor effort to increase minority involvement in the industry. Yet black Marylanders are still twice as likely to be arrested for cannabis possession than white Marylanders, despite the fact that the state decriminalized possession in 2014.

As Reed observes, “The licensing process alone in most states is daunting for the average minority applicant.” Easley, who acknowledges their pro football background has helped them enter the business, laments that, “many of our friends have had the door shut on them because of their lack of capital and even their minority status.”

Duggan Flanakin is a journalist, policy analyst, and poet who resides in Austin, Texas.

Business & Finance

Kazakh President Fires Rare Criticism At Predecessor After Unrest

Dani Davis



Kazakhstan’s President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev issued rare criticism of his long-ruling predecessor Tuesday, and said he expected Russian-led forces to leave the troubled Central Asian country in the next 10 days.

The oil-rich country’s descent into chaos has laid bare infighting at the top of a government once dominated by Tokayev’s mentor, 81-year-old Nursultan Nazarbayev.

The older man retains the constitutional status of “Leader of the Nation” despite stepping down from the presidency in 2019.

Addressing lawmakers in a video conference broadcast live, Tokayev fired an eyebrow-raising broadside at Nazarbayev as the post-Soviet country reels from unprecedented violence that began with peaceful protests over an energy price hike.

Tokayev, 68, said Nazarbayev’s rule had created “a layer of wealthy people, even by international standards”.

Dozens died in the unrest and 10,000 people have been arrested Photo: AFP / Alexandr BOGDANOV

“The time has come to pay tribute to the people of Kazakhstan and help them on a systematic and regular basis,” Tokayev added, noting that “very profitable companies” would be asked to pay money into a state fund.

“The current system is oriented towards major structures and is based on the principle: ‘everything for friends and laws for everyone else’,” he said.

Both Kazakhstan and Russia have framed last week’s unrest that left dozens dead and almost 10,000 people arrested as a coup attempt assisted by foreign “terrorists”, but have provided little supporting evidence.

Tokayev blamed his predecessor for creating a rich elite Tokayev blamed his predecessor for creating a rich elite Photo: SPUTNIK via AFP / Yevgeny BIYATOV

Following a request from career diplomat Tokayev, the Moscow-led Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO) deployed troops to bring about order and shore up the authorities.

On Tuesday, Tokayev announced “a phased withdrawal” would begin in two days and take “no more than 10 days”.

“The main mission of the CSTO peacekeeping forces has been successfully completed,” he said.

The CSTO mission of more than 2,000 troops was deployed at the peak of the crisis, after armed clashes between government opponents and security forces and a looting spree trashed parts of the largest city Almaty.

The decision was a first for the CSTO, often touted by Moscow as a NATO equivalent but previously reluctant to interfere in unrest in Central Asia, a region with long historical ties to Russia.

Nursultan Nazarbayev retains the constitutional status of 'Leader of the Nation' Nursultan Nazarbayev retains the constitutional status of ‘Leader of the Nation’ Photo: AFP / NICHOLAS KAMM

Concern has mounted that Moscow could leverage the mission to entrench its influence in Kazakhstan and US Secretary of State Antony Blinken warned that “once Russians are in your house, it’s sometimes very difficult to get them to leave”.

Tokayev appeared to further bolster his position by backing acting prime minister Alikhan Smailov to take on the job permanently on Tuesday — a nomination that won the unanimous support of lawmakers.

Former national security committee chief Karim Masimov — a key Nazarbayev ally viewed as perpetuating the retired president’s influence over the government — was arrested on treason charges Saturday in connection with the unrest.

Even if Nazarbayev — the son of shepherds who rose through the communist party’s ranks — is now being sidelined politically, dislodging his family’s extensive interests in Central Asia’s largest economy may take time.

In a significant move Tuesday, Tokayev announced plans to bring an end to a widely criticised private recycling monopoly linked to Nazarbayev’s youngest daughter, Aliya Nazarbayeva, 41.

“This should be done by a state organisation, like in other countries,” he said of the scheme.

But middle daughter Dinara and her husband Timur Kulibayev control Halyk, the largest commercial bank, and are among the richest people in the country. Kulibayev is moreover a key player in the flagship oil sector.

Oldest daughter Dariga Nazarbayeva’s political career, mainly in the rubber-stamp legislature, has been marked by a series of controversial statements and perceptions of an abrasive style.

The 58-year-old’s reported business interests are also rumoured to be extensive.

Leaks of offshore financial data and a High Court challenge in London have meanwhile revealed the extent of her family’s foreign property holdings — part of a trend of capital leaving that country that Nazarbayev officially discouraged while president.

Many residents of Almaty credited the CSTO as a stabilising force that had helped Tokayev gain control over the situation after spending several days inside as gunfire echoed around the city.

Roza Matayeva, a 45-year-old English teacher, got used to tuning in to her radio during the five-day internet blackout in Kazakhstan’s financial hub that ended briefly Monday morning before the city of 1.8 million went offline again at lunchtime.

News that the Moscow-led bloc had agreed to Tokayev’s request to send a detachment “brought relief and hope that the situation will be decided for the best in the near future,” she told AFP.

“I welcome cooperation with Russia. I think there is no threat to our sovereignty.”

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Business & Finance

Here’s How Apple CEO Earned 500% More In 2021

Dani Davis




  • Tim Cook received $98.73 million in total compensation in Apple’s fiscal 2021
  • The sum included $82.35 million in stock awards, a $12 million bonus tied to performance targets and a $3 million base salary
  • He reportedly earned $14.8 million in salary in 2020

Apple CEO Tim Cook’s compensation ballooned to nearly $100 million in 2021, a sixfold increase from the prior year.

The 61-year-old executive, who reportedly earned $14.8 million in 2020, received $98.73 million in total compensation in Apple’s fiscal 2021, according to an SEC filing published Thursday. The company’s fiscal year began in September 2020 and ran through September 2021.

Of this amount, $82.35 million came from stock awards. The sum also included a base salary of $3 million and a $12 million bonus for hitting Apple’s performance targets.

Cook also received $1.39 million in other compensation, including $712,488 in personal air travel, $630,630 in security, a $17,400 contribution to his 401(k) plan, $2,964 in life insurance premiums and $23,077 in vacation cash-out.

Despite the negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and supply chain issues, Apple reported 33% revenue growth and more than $365 billion in sales. The increase in annual sales reportedly stemmed from the strong demand over the past two years as consumers working from home splurge on upgrades. 

Cook became CEO of Apple in August 2011 after the company’s late founder Steve Jobs stepped down. Jobs died of pancreatic cancer that October.

In 2021, Apple marked the 10th anniversary of Cook’s leadership as CEO.

In September last year, Cook reportedly received 333,987 restricted stock units, in his first stock grant since 2011 as part of a long-term equity plan. He will be eligible to receive additional units in 2023.

A report by Reuters noted that Cook’s 2021 pay was 1,447 times that of the average Apple employee. 

In 2021, the median pay for employees was $68,254. In 2020, the median pay was $57,783, 256 times Cook’s salary, according to the publication. 

Cook, who has already donated tens of millions of dollars to various charities, previously stated he plans to give away most of his fortune before he dies.

Cook’s net worth was $1.5 billion as of Tuesday, according to a Forbes estimate.

Prior to being named CEO, Cook was Apple’s senior vice president of worldwide operations. At the time, he was earning $500,000 per year. When he became CEO of Apple in 2011, Cook’s salary increased to $900,000 per year. 

Between 2011 and 2020, Cook reportedly received $963.5 million in total compensation.

Apple CEO Tim Cook attends Apple’s “Ted Lasso” season two premiere event red carpet at the Pacific Design Center, in West Hollywood, California, July 15, 2021 Photo: AFP / VALERIE MACON

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Business & Finance

UN Wants $5 Bn Aid For Afghanistan In 2022

Dani Davis



The United Nations said Tuesday it needed $5 billion in aid for Afghanistan in 2022 to avert a humanitarian catastrophe and offer the ravaged country a future after 40 years of suffering.

In its biggest-ever single-country appeal, the UN said $4.4 billion (3.9 billion euros) was needed within Afghanistan, while a further $623 million was required to support the millions of Afghans sheltering beyond its borders.

The UN said 22 million people inside Afghanistan and a further 5.7 million displaced Afghans in five neighbouring countries needed vital relief this year.

“A full-blown humanitarian catastrophe looms. My message is urgent: don’t shut the door on the people of Afghanistan,” said UN aid chief Martin Griffiths.

“Help us scale up and stave off wide-spread hunger, disease, malnutrition and ultimately death.”

Since the Taliban hardline Islamist movement seized control of Afghanistan in mid-August, the country has plunged into financial chaos, with inflation and unemployment surging.

Washington has frozen billions of dollars of the country’s assets, while aid supplies have been heavily disrupted.

Afghanistan also suffered its worst drought in decades in 2021.

Without the aid package, “there won’t be a future”, Griffiths told reporters in Geneva.

The Taliban authorities said the aid appeal for suffering Afghans was “very needed”.

“But at the same time I would like to say the need is for all this assistance approved in the past to be delivered during this harsh winter,” senior Taliban leader and the group’s designated UN representative, Suhail Shaheen, told AFP.

He said the inflow of funds would also help in the functioning of the now dilapidated banking system, adding that any cash coming into the country will help rein in the inflation.

The UN said $4.4 billion (3.9 billion euros) was needed within Afghanistan to avert humanitarian disaster Photo: AFP / Mohd RASFAN

“The banks are not working properly so there is also a need to control the inflation and that can be controlled when dollars … hard currency come to Afghanistan,” Shaheen said.

Griffiths said the appeal, if funded, would help aid agencies ramp up the delivery of food and agriculture support, health services, malnutrition treatment, emergency shelters, access to water and sanitation, protection and education.

An estimated 4.7 million people will suffer from acute malnutrition in 2022, including 1.1 million children with severe acute malnutrition.

Griffiths said that without humanitarian aid, distress, deaths, hunger and further mass displacement would follow, “robbing the people of Afghanistan of the hope that their country will be their home and support, now and in the near term”.

However, if international donors come forward, “we will see the opportunity for an Afghanistan which may finally see the fruits of some kind of security.”

Griffiths said the security situation for humanitarian organisations in Afghanistan was probably better now than for many years, adding that the staff in the ministries in Kabul largely remained the same as before the Taliban takeover.

He said the UN Security Council’s move in December to help humanitarian aid reach desperate Afghans, without violating international sanctions aimed at isolating the Taliban, had made the operating environment for donors and humanitarians on the ground much more comfortable.

The money will go to 160 NGOs plus UN agencies delivering aid. Some will be used to pay frontline workers such as healthcare staff — but not via the Taliban administration.

Around eight million children could miss out on their education because teachers largely have not been paid since August, Griffiths said.

UN refugees chief Filippo Grandi said the aid package’s goal was to stabilise the situation within Afghanistan, including for internally displaced people, thereby preventing a further flood of migrants fleeing across the country’s borders.

“That movement of people will be difficult to manage, in the region and beyond, because it will not stop at the region,” he said.

“If those efforts are not successful, we will have to ask for $10 billion next year, not $5 billion.”

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