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The online checkout page is broken. These 3 companies are fixing it

Diane Davis



There’s no way around it: The holiday shopping season is going to be a mess.

From inflation driving up the price of goods to massive disruption in the supply chain causing shortages and delays, the grim forecast that analysts have been warning consumers and retailers about for months is, indeed, nigh.

While there’s little that can be done immediately about a total meltdown in logistics and an economy still reeling from the pandemic, there’s another pain point in the online shopping experience that’s less complicated to fix.

You may have noticed how cluttered your online checkout process has become over the past few years: having to create an account to complete your purchase, a dizzying array of payment options, pop-ups for warranties and insurance that cost more than the item you’re buying. Sure, some checkout add-ons may be beneficial to consumers, but only if properly executed. Otherwise, they exacerbate the longstanding issue of cart abandonment, i.e. customers adding items to their digital cart but not completing the transaction.

A recent study from Stripe found that 19% of customers would abandon a purchase if it took more than a minute to check out—and 56% of customers said it takes three minutes on average to complete a purchase. Research from the Baymard Institute calculated the overall cart abandonment rate at nearly 70%, and that between the U.S. and European Union’s combined e-commerce volume, $260 billion worth of lost purchases could’ve been recovered through better checkout flow and design.

“If there’s additional things that keep saying, ‘also try buying this’ or ‘add this to your cart,’ those are pieces that will just interrupt users from that flow,” says Richard Lam, UX auditor at Baymard Institute. “It’ll force them to consider other product options, consider other price considerations—all of those can become barriers.”

That point of friction has ushered in an emerging class of companies rethinking express checkout.

Bolt, Fast, and Skipify have been overhauling the checkout process with features including one-click checkout, shopping from a product page, and even making purchases directly from email.

“Amazon’s advantage had been the simplicity of the purchase process and the checkout process,” says Maureen Burns, senior partner at management consultancy Bain & Company. “And so there’s been a lot of innovation to try to match that.”

Bolt: Powering payments

Founded in 2014, Bolt has been an early pioneer in streamlining checkout and has amassed more than 10 million shoppers in its network and $608 million in funding.

Bob Buch [Photo: courtesy of Bolt]

“When you’re going through a checkout flow, there’s all these different buttons. We call it the Nascar effect, because it’s like a Nascar uniform that’s just plastered with logos all over it,” says Bob Buch, Bolt‘s chief business officer. “The more logos, the more indecision. It’s like, do I remember my PayPal password? Or what’s this new button? So the approach that Bolt took was [to] power the whole checkout.”

Essentially, customers save their information (payment, shipping address, and so forth) and all future purchases from retailers in Bolt’s network are automated with only a verification text or email to contend with. This has resulted in a 50% lift in conversion versus traditional guest checkouts. Bolt also allows customers to opt into automatically creating a store account.

“Because third-party cookies are going away, it’s getting more and more difficult for these merchants to really know their users and be able to personalize,” Buch says. “So they’re making a big push to capture those store accounts.”

If a merchant doesn’t want Bolt to take over the whole checkout process, they have the option of integrating Bolt’s API into their existing checkout page. Buch notes that the payment is still processed through the retailer as opposed to, say, opting to pay with a PayPal account where the transaction is through PayPal. “The merchant might have this great payment processing relationship with Stripe or Adyen, because they do a lot of volume, but then all the checkouts are going to be processed through a different processor,” he says. “Merchants are not loving that.”

Fast: Powering product pages

After Domm Holland‘s youngest son was born, his grandmother-in-law stayed with his family to help out. One day, she was attempting to buy groceries online but couldn’t remember her password. “It’s crazy when you think about it: If granny had gone into a physical supermarket, she could have just pulled out a card, tapped to pay, and been done with it in 30 seconds,” Holland says. “Yet in a pure digital medium, it’s so complicated.”

That incident led Holland to start Fast in 2019, and the company has since raised more than $120 million in funding.

Domm Holland [Photo: courtesy of Fast]

“The question we were asking is what’s the easiest way for people to buy?” says Holland, cofounder and CEO of Fast. “When other companies have looked at this space, they’ve gone, how do we solve cart abandonment for sellers? Which seems to be the same problem, but it’s a very different lens—and it comes up with a very different product.”

Fast offers one-click checkout, but it’s also zeroed in on offering it on product pages and not just at checkout, similar to Amazon’s “buy now” button.

“The most important piece is one-click from the point that you have intent, from the point that you decide that you want to buy,” Holland says.

The result has been an average conversion rate of more than 60% and a wallet share that has grown from 5% in Q4 2020 to 28% in Q3 2021.

“You’ve got PayPal and these products measuring [their] success [as] converting people at the last step of a 10-step process. For us, we measure how well we convert more visitors to customers,” Holland says. “It’s a really big difference, because it’s a much bigger category. We’ve actually seen customers are more likely to click Fast checkout than ‘add to cart.’ Over 60% of our business comes from product pages, not from the cart.”

Skipify: Powering email

Ryth Martin’s approach to easier checkouts was to think outside the product page, if you will.

“There are just so many moments in the shopper funnel that are too difficult for people, whether that’s purchasing on a core merchant’s website or deciding you want to purchase a product that’s offered in that email. Why can’t you just buy the product?” says Martin, founder and CEO of Skipify.

Founded in 2019, Skipify allows merchants to create shoppable emails, an interesting approach given how powerful email marketing remains.

Ryth Martin [Photo: courtesy of Skipify]

According to EmailToolTesters, abandoned cart emails (emails sent when you’ve left something in your cart without completing the purchase) have a 3x greater conversion rate than other automated emails, and email marketing has an ROI of 4,400%, i.e. $44 earned for every dollar spent on a marketing campaign.

“If everyone can buy from inside of the email, you just increased the size of your funnel significantly,” Martin says. “And that is potentially a better conversion hack than any subject-line testing or any small change you can do in an email program.”

Skipify partnered with Google last year to enable its service inside Gmail, and Martin intends to make further inroads in powering shoppable emails. But he’s also positioning Skipify to be a contender among express checkout services operating through merchant pages.

“I think you’re going to continue to see this category advance at some very rapid levels,” he says.

‘When Uber and Lyft started, people thought their total market was taxi rides. And what happened is it’s so easy to take an Uber and a Lyft that all of a sudden people do it instead of walking or biking, or even taking their own car. When people saw buy now pay later, people said, their total addressable market is all purchases between $500 and $2,000. But guess what? People are doing buy now pay later on $50, $40 products, and it drives better conversion for the merchant. The same thing is going to happen with express checkout.”

Martin sees the express checkout category as only in its second inning, but the eventual standard in the overall checkout experience.

“There will be no guest checkouts anymore on merchant websites. It will all be done through these secure express protocols,” he says. “And if you’re a merchant, you need to start getting ahead of that and unpacking what it means to build that. Increasingly, shoppers want these experiences. It’s what people are opting into in checkout flows when it’s available.”

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Technology & Innovation

The Download: Trump’s potential climate impact, and the end of cheap helium

Diane Davis




This is today’s edition of The Download, our weekday newsletter that provides a daily dose of what’s going on in the world of technology.

Trump wants to unravel Biden’s landmark climate law. Here is what’s most at risk.

President Joe Biden’s crowning legislative achievement was enacting the Inflation Reduction Act, easily the nation’s largest investment into addressing the rising dangers of climate change. 

Yet Donald Trump’s advisors and associates have clearly indicated that dismantling the landmark law would sit at the top of the Republican front-runner’s to-do list should he win the presidential election. 

If he succeeds, it could stall the nation’s shift to cleaner industries and stunt efforts to cut the greenhouse-gas pollution warming the planet. The IRA’s tax credits for EVs and clean power projects appear especially vulnerable. But lots of other provisions could also come under attack. Read the full story. 

—James Temple

The era of cheap helium is over—and that’s already causing problems

Helium is excellent at conducting heat. And at temperatures close to absolute zero, at which most other materials would freeze solid, helium remains a liquid. That makes it a perfect refrigerant for anything that must be kept very cold.

Liquid helium is therefore essential to any technology that uses superconducting magnets, including MRI scanners and some fusion reactors. Helium also cools particle accelerators, quantum computers, and the infrared detectors on the James Webb Space Telescope. 

“It’s a critical element for the future,” says Richard Clarke, a UK-based helium resources consultant. However, it’s also played a critical role throughout the history of technology development, while remaining in tight supply. 

As part of MIT technology Review’s 125th anniversary series, we looked back at our coverage of how helium became such an important resource, and considered how demand might change in the future. Read the full story.

—Amy Nordrum

How Antarctica’s history of isolation is ending—thanks to Starlink

“This is one of the least visited places on planet Earth and I got to open the door,” Matty Jordan, a construction specialist at New Zealand’s Scott Base in Antarctica, wrote in the caption to the video he posted to Instagram and TikTok in October 2023. 

In the video, he guides viewers through the hut, pointing out where the men of Ernest Shackleton’s 1907 expedition lived and worked. 

The video has racked up millions of views from all over the world. It’s also kind of a miracle: until very recently, those who lived and worked on Antarctic bases had no hope of communicating so readily with the outside world. 

That’s starting to change, thanks to Starlink, the satellite constellation developed by Elon Musk’s company SpaceX to service the world with high-speed broadband internet. Read the full story. 

—Allegra Rosenberg

Wikimedia’s CTO: In the age of AI, human contributors still matter

Selena Deckelmann is the chief product and technology officer at the Wikimedia Foundation, the nonprofit that hosts and manages Wikipedia.

There she not only guides one of the most turned-to sources of information in the world but serves a vast community of “Wikipedians,” the hundreds of thousands of real-life individuals who spend their free time writing, editing, and discussing entries—in more than 300 languages—to make Wikipedia what it is today. 

It is undeniable that technological advances and cultural shifts have transformed our online universe over the years—especially with the recent surge in AI-generated content—but Deckelmann still isn’t afraid of people on the internet. She believes they are its future. Read the full story.

—Rebecca Ackermann 

The two stories above are from the next issue of MIT technology Review, all about hidden worlds. It’s set to go live on Wednesday—subscribe now to get your copy!

The must-reads

I’ve combed the internet to find you today’s most fun/important/scary/fascinating stories about technology.

1 The Supreme Court will decide whether states can control social media 
It’ll start hearing arguments today about whether laws aimed at controlling online platforms in Texas and Florida are constitutional. (WP $)
Here’s what you need to know. (NYT $)
Texas’s law is dangerous. Striking it down could be even worse. (The Atlantic $)

2 Celebrities are being ‘deepfaked’ for adverts
AI-generated videos have them endorsing and promoting things they’ve never even heard of. (BBC)
+ These companies show why the next AI wave won’t revolve around chatbots. (Fast Company)

3 Inside TikTok’s live money-making machine
Live streaming can be hugely lucrative—for both the creator and TikTok itself—but there’s a dark side too. (ABC)
+ Influencers are getting younger and younger. (NBC)

4 A vending machine was secretly scanning undergrads’ faces
As privacy violations go, this is a pretty insidious and unnecessary one. (Ars Technica)
Computer scientists designing the future can’t agree on what privacy means. (MIT technology Review)

5 China is set to dominate the future of electric cars 
Thanks, at least partly, to years of careful investment and planning by its government. (Insider $)
Why the world’s biggest EV maker is getting into shipping. (MIT technology Review)

6 People are reporting cracks in their Apple Vision Pros
Bad news about these headsets just keeps on coming. (Engadget)
Apple is exploring developing even more wearable devices. (Bloomberg $)

7 Digitally resurrecting your loved ones might be bad for you
Researchers claim it could create unhealthy dependence on the technology. (New Scientist $)
technology that lets us “speak” to our dead relatives has arrived. Are we ready? (MIT technology Review)

8 Could you endure living on Mars? 
Physical concerns aside, it’d wreak havoc on most people’s minds. (NYT $)
These scientists live like astronauts without leaving Earth. (MIT technology Review)

9 A man allegedly made $1.8 million eavesdropping on his wife’s calls 
US regulators claim he traded on confidential information he overheard during her remote meetings. (The Guardian)

10 Meet the man whose job is to keep an ice cream factory cool ????
Engineering challenges don’t come much more delicious than this. (IEEE Spectrum)

Quote of the day

“I understand that SpaceX is possibly withholding broadband internet services in and around Taiwan — possibly in breach of SpaceX’s contractual obligations with the U.S. government.”

—Republican Representative Mike Gallagher makes an explosive claim in a letter to Elon Musk, CNBC reports. 

The big story

ChatGPT is about to revolutionize the economy. We need to decide what that looks like.



March 2023

Whether it’s based on hallucinatory beliefs or not, a gold rush has started over the last several months to make money from generative AI models like ChatGPT.

You can practically hear the shrieks from corner offices around the world: “What is our ChatGPT play? How do we make money off this?”

But while companies and executives want to cash in, the likely impact of generative AI on workers and the economy on the whole is far less obvious.

Will ChatGPT make the already troubling income and wealth inequality in the US and many other countries even worse, or could it in fact provide a much-needed boost to productivity? Read the full story.

—David Rotman

We can still have nice things

A place for comfort, fun and distraction to brighten up your day. (Got any ideas? Drop me a line or tweet ’em at me.)

+ If you want to be happy, fill your days with ‘firsts’
+ May these chatty cats bless your morning. 
+ Please, don’t make tea in an air fryer.
+ This writing exercise could help you to better understand what you want from life.

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Technology & Innovation

How Antarctica’s history of isolation is ending—thanks to Starlink

Diane Davis



a smiling person in a t-shirt types at a telex

Helpful hams and secret codes

By 1957,Admiral Byrd was recognized as the world’s foremost expert in Antarctic exploration and was leading America’s Operation Deep Freeze, a mission to build a permanent American presence on the continent. The US Naval Construction Battalions, known as the Seabees, were deployed to build McMurdo Station on the solid ground of Ross Island, close to the first hut built by Captain Robert Scott in 1901. 

Deep Freeze brought a massive military presence to Antarctica, including the most complex and advanced communications array the Navy could muster. Still, men who wanted to speak to loved ones at home had limited options. Physical mail could come and go on ships a few times a year, or they could send expensive telegrams over wireless—limited to 100 or 200 words per month each way. At least these methods were private, unlike the personal communications over radio on Byrd’s expedition, which everyone else could listen in to by default.

In the face of these limitations, another option soon became popular among the Navy men. The licensed operators of McMurdo’s amateur (ham) station were assisted by hams back at home. Seabees would call from McMurdo to a ham in America, who would patch them straight through to their destination through the US phone system, free of charge. 

Some of these helpful hams became legendary. Jules Madey and his brother John, two New Jersey teenagers with the call sign K2KGJ, had built a 110-foot-tall radio tower in their backyard, with a transmitter that was more than capable of communicating to and from McMurdo Sound. 

To save money, a code known as “WYSSA” offered a broad variety of set phrases for common topics. WYSSA itself stood for “All my love, darling.”

From McMurdo, the South Pole, and the fifth Little America base on the Ross Ice Shelf, ham operators could ring Jules at nearly any time of day or night, and he’d connect them to home. Jules became an Antarctic celebrity and icon. A few of the engaged couples he helped to link up even invited him and his brother to their weddings, after the men returned from their tours of duty in Antarctica. Many Deep Freeze men still remembered the Madey brothers decades later. 

In the early 1960s, continued Deep Freeze operations, including support ships, were improving communication across American outposts in Antarctica. Bigger antennas, more powerful receivers and transmitters, and improvements to ground-to-air communication systems were installed, shoring up the capacity for scientific activity, transport, and construction.  

Around this time, the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions were improving their communications capacity as well. Like other Antarctic programs, they used telex machines, sending text out over radio waves to link up with a phone-line-based system on land. Telex, a predecessor to fax technology, text messaging, and email, was in use from the 1960s onwards as an alternative to Morse code and voice over HF and VHF radio. On the other side of the line, a terminal would receive the text and print it out.

The Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions sent text over radio waves and developed a special code known as “WYSSA” to save money on the expensive telex rates.


In order to save money on the expensive per-word rates, a special code known as “WYSSA” (pronounced, in an Australian accent, “whizzer”) was constructed. This creative solution became legendary in Antarctic history. WYSSA itself stood for “All my love, darling,” and the code offered a broad variety of predetermined phrases for common topics, from the inconveniences of Antarctic life (YAYIR—“Fine snow has penetrated through small crevices in the huts”) to affectionate sentiments (YAAHY—“Longing to hear from you again, darling”) and personal updates (YIGUM—“I have grown a beard which is awful”). 

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Technology & Innovation

Tackling long-haul diseases | MIT Technology Review

Diane Davis




Tal, who has been obsessed with infectious disease since losing an uncle to HIV/AIDS and a cousin to meningococcal meningitis, wondered what this striking diversity could reveal about our immune response to infection. According to one hypothesis, the wide array of these receptors is the result of an evolutionary arms race between disease-causing microbes and the immune system. Think of the receptor as a lock, and the “Nothing to see here” message as a key. Pathogens might evolve to produce their own chemical mimics of this key, effectively hiding from the immune system in plain sight. In response, the human population has developed a wide range of locks to frustrate any given impostor key. 

Wanting to test this hypothesis, Tal found herself walking the halls of Stanford, asking colleagues, “Who’s got a cool bug?” Someone gave her Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease. Previous research from Tal’s collaborator Jenifer Coburn, a microbiologist now at the Medical College of Wisconsin, had established that Lyme bacteria sport a special protein crucial for establishing a lasting infection. Knock this protein out, and the immune system swiftly overwhelms the bugs. The big question, however, was what made this protein so essential. So Tal used what’s known as a high-affinity probe as bait—and caught the Borrelia’s mimic of our “Don’t eat me” signal binding to it. In other words, she confirmed that the bacteria’s sneakyprotein was, as predicted, a close match for a healthy cell’s signal.  

Sex differences in Lyme infection

Until then, Tal says, she had never given Lyme disease much thought. But the more she learned, the more disturbed she grew. Even after timely antibiotic treatment, roughly 10% of all Lyme patients go on to develop chronic symptoms that can include crushing pain, debilitating fatigue, and cognitive changes that make basic tasks a struggle.  

This confocal micrograph depicts Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria, which cause Lyme disease when transmitted to humans by ticks. These Borrelia were genetically engineered to produce a green fluorescent protein.


Perhaps even more alarming than the disease has been the medical community’s response to it. “I realized that there’s this public health debacle around Lyme, and it’s, for lack of a better word, obscene,” Tal says. Chronic Lyme patients skew female, and for decades, clinicians have dismissed their symptoms as signs of mental illness. The medical establishment has “done nothing but call them crazy,” Tal says, “instead of admitting that they just don’t understand what’s going on.” 

Today, there is no objective way to diagnose chronic Lyme, and no medically accepted therapy. For some patients, lengthy treatments with high doses of antibiotics can ease symptoms, but these come with their own serious risks. (They can, for example, damage the microbiome, leading to significant negative effects on health.) And because the antibiotic used currently only prevents bacteria from replicating, Tal notes, it’s up to the immune system to actually kill off the invaders. If immune cells can’t tell friend from foe, the utility of antibiotics may be limited. 

Chronic Lyme patients skew female, and for decades, the medical establishment has “done nothing but call them crazy,” Tal says, “instead of admitting that they just don’t understand what’s going on.”

For Tal, these revelations were electrifying. She dove into the immunology of Lyme disease, focusing in particular on sex differences. In one mouse experiment, she discovered that Lyme bacteria “completely disfigured” the uterus. Yet after delving through decades of Lyme research, she could find only one other study that even documented uterine infection. 

This shortfall mirrors larger problems in medical research. “We’ve let men dictate the direction of research funding for so long,” Tal says. Traditionally, studies focused on male subjects, and a 1977 FDA policy barred women from participating in most clinical trials in the US in the wake of birth defects caused by thalidomide. It wasn’t until 1993 that federal law required studies to include women and minorities. This, coupled with other sex- and gender-based medical biases, means that many female-dominated diseases remain under-researched. “So much of this research is being done on males, male mice—male, male, male,” Tal says. “And I’m like, no.” 

Tal suspects that the sex disparities seen in chronic Lyme and other pathogen-­triggered chronic diseases might come down to the fact that men mount a more robust response to acute infection. This no-holds-barred approach is risky—“Your immune system has the power to kill you,” she notes—but it may mean that men, on average, can kill off more viruses or bacteria in the critical first week of infection. After that window closes, the immune system largely settles back down, Tal says. Pathogens that escaped the initial blitz could take up long-term residence in the body, potentially causing persistent symptoms. And women have a higher chance of chronic illness.

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