By Min-Hsuan Tu and Elisabeth K. Gilbert and Joyce E. Bono 4 minute Read
What does it take to get ahead at work? All you need to do is be competent, work hard and get along with others—at least, that’s what we’d like to tell you. But decades of research shows that it also helps to be physically attractive.
On average, good-looking people earn higher pay, receive higher performance evaluations, and have a better chance of being promoted. To our chagrin, even better-looking professors get higher teaching evaluations. Particularly dismaying is the evidence that more attractive candidates are more likely to be hired in the first place, meaning that this trend starts even before people have a chance to prove themselves on the job.
Some of this is due to pure bias. Past studies show that if you send out identical resumes to different employers with photos of more versus less attractive individuals attached, the pretty people are more likely to get callbacks. But as management researchers, we also wondered if attractive people do something different in work-related social settings that boosts their advantage. Our curiosity is based on previous research that has found attractive people have both more and more positive social interactions than others. Over years of these experiences, might good-looking individuals gain more confidence in social settings and develop better self-presentation skills that could help account for their success in job interviews? And if so, if less attractive people could learn those same skills, could that help level the playing field?
To answer these questions, we conducted a small study. We asked 176 undergraduate and graduate students who were gearing up to apply for internships and jobs to practice their interview skills by creating a video explaining why they were the right person for a (fictitious) desirable leadership development opportunity in a major company. They made a three-minute elevator pitch in our recording rooms, introducing themselves and their qualifications for the job, similar to the brief video-recorded interview Q&As many companies use as an initial step in the hiring process.
Seven independent observers rated all the videos for attractiveness and another five provided ratings for nonverbal presence. In addition, we had 21 managers with hiring experience rate how interested they would be in hiring each applicant. We also asked participants themselves how powerful they felt and how confident they were in their ability to influence others before they recorded their video pitch.
The bad news first: Attractive people actually did present themselves in a more confident and enthusiastic way than their less attractive counterparts, leading managers to rate them as more hirable. They even felt more powerful, and it was this sense of power that seemed to drive their more effective nonverbal communication.
Armed with this data, we set about to see if increasing applicants’ sense of power—regardless of whether they were attractive or not—would result in improved communication during the elevator pitch video. We decided to use a power-posing intervention, based on the research by Amy Cuddy and colleagues. Power posing involves standing like a superhero, with your feet shoulder-width apart, hands on your hips, chest out, and chin up. Holding this posture is designed to make you feel more powerful before stressful experiences like interviews.
It’s worth noting that this research has drawn criticism, especially since subsequent studies have not replicated early findings that power posing can produce hormonal changes, and the debate is ongoing. However, our study relies on an aspect of power posing research that has held up much better. That power posing enhances subjective feelings of power. And to make sure we didn’t get results just because people familiar with power posing believed it would help them, we included only participants who weren’t aware of power posing or Cuddy’s TED Talk.
As our research participants—a new batch of 124 students—prepared their elevator pitches for the fictitious leadership development opportunity, we randomly assigned half of them to power pose as they prepared their pitch. Those not assigned to the power-posing condition prepared for the interview in their own way, as in our first study. After five minutes of prep time, participants in both conditions recorded their pitch normally without holding any poses. Once again, the videos were rated by 12 hiring managers for hireability, four by independent observers for attractiveness, and another four observers for nonverbal presentation.
Now for the good news: In our second study, less attractive participants who practiced power posing exhibited the same skill in nonverbal communication as more attractive participants naturally did, thereby closing the gap between the two groups. There was no longer a difference in more and less attractive applicants’ nonverbal presence. Observers perceived them as equally confident, enthusiastic, captivating, and poised. As a result, attractiveness no longer had an effect on managers’ hireability ratings. And power posing worked for both men and women.
Of course, this doesn’t mean that power posing is the solution for attractiveness bias in interviews, let alone in the workplace. We as a society have lots of work to do to ensure that people are consistently evaluated based on the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed for their jobs.
But in the meantime, our study does offer a little hope for those of us who aren’t blessed with striking looks. If you’re a job seeker looking for a way to feel more powerful and present yourself more confidently in your next interview, trying this simple trick might give you the edge you need to get the job.
Min-Hsuan Tu is an assistant professor of organization and human resource management at the University at Buffalo School of Management. Elisabeth Gilbert is an assistant professor of business administration in the Williams School of Commerce, Economics, and Politics at Washington and Lee University. Joyce Bono is the W.A. McGriff III professor in the Warrington College of Business at the University of Florida.
Google DeepMind’s new generative model makes Super Mario-like games from scratch
“It’s cool work,” says Matthew Gudzial, an AI researcher at the University of Alberta, who developed a similar game generator a few years ago.
Genie was trained on 30,000 hours of video of hundreds of 2D platform games taken from the internet. Others have taken that approach before, says Gudzial. His own game generator learned from videos to create abstract platformers. Nivida used video data to train a model called GameGAN, which could produce clones of games like Pac-Man.
But all of these examples trained the model with input actions, button presses on a games controller, as well as video footage: a video frame showing Mario jumping was paired with the “jump” action, and so on. Tagging video footage with input actions takes a lot of work, however. This has limited the amount of training data available.
In contrast, Genie was trained on video footage alone. It then learned which of eight possible actions would cause the game character in a video to change its position. This turned countless hours of existing online video into potential training data.
Genie generates each new frame of the game on the fly depending on the action the player takes. Press jump and Genie updates the current image to show the game character jumping; press left and the image changes to show the character moved to the left. The game ticks along action by action, each new frame generated from scratch as the player plays.
Future versions of Genie could run faster. “There is no fundamental limitation that prevents us from reaching 30 frames per second,” says Tim Rocktäschel, a research scientist at Google DeepMind who leads the team behind the work. “Genie uses many of the same technologies as contemporary large language models, where there has been significant progress in improving inference speed.”
Genie learned some common visual quirks found in platformers. Many games of this type use parallax, where the foreground moves sideways faster than the background. Genie often adds this effect to the games it generates.
While Genie is an in-house research project and won’t be released, Gudzial notes that the Google DeepMind team says it could one day be turned into a game-making tool—something he’s working on too. “I’m definitely interested to see what they build,” he says.
Tackling long-haul diseases | MIT Technology Review
Tal, who has been obsessed with infectious disease since losing an uncle to HIV/AIDS and a cousin to meningococcal meningitis, wondered what this striking diversity could reveal about our immune response to infection. According to one hypothesis, the wide array of these receptors is the result of an evolutionary arms race between disease-causing microbes and the immune system. Think of the receptor as a lock, and the “Nothing to see here” message as a key. Pathogens might evolve to produce their own chemical mimics of this key, effectively hiding from the immune system in plain sight. In response, the human population has developed a wide range of locks to frustrate any given impostor key.
Wanting to test this hypothesis, Tal found herself walking the halls of Stanford, asking colleagues, “Who’s got a cool bug?” Someone gave her Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease. Previous research from Tal’s collaborator Jenifer Coburn, a microbiologist now at the Medical College of Wisconsin, had established that Lyme bacteria sport a special protein crucial for establishing a lasting infection. Knock this protein out, and the immune system swiftly overwhelms the bugs. The big question, however, was what made this protein so essential. So Tal used what’s known as a high-affinity probe as bait—and caught the Borrelia’s mimic of our “Don’t eat me” signal binding to it. In other words, she confirmed that the bacteria’s sneakyprotein was, as predicted, a close match for a healthy cell’s signal.
Sex differences in Lyme infection
Until then, Tal says, she had never given Lyme disease much thought. But the more she learned, the more disturbed she grew. Even after timely antibiotic treatment, roughly 10% of all Lyme patients go on to develop chronic symptoms that can include crushing pain, debilitating fatigue, and cognitive changes that make basic tasks a struggle.
Perhaps even more alarming than the disease has been the medical community’s response to it. “I realized that there’s this public health debacle around Lyme, and it’s, for lack of a better word, obscene,” Tal says. Chronic Lyme patients skew female, and for decades, clinicians have dismissed their symptoms as signs of mental illness. The medical establishment has “done nothing but call them crazy,” Tal says, “instead of admitting that they just don’t understand what’s going on.”
Today, there is no objective way to diagnose chronic Lyme, and no medically accepted therapy. For some patients, lengthy treatments with high doses of antibiotics can ease symptoms, but these come with their own serious risks. (They can, for example, damage the microbiome, leading to significant negative effects on health.) And because the antibiotic used currently only prevents bacteria from replicating, Tal notes, it’s up to the immune system to actually kill off the invaders. If immune cells can’t tell friend from foe, the utility of antibiotics may be limited.
Chronic Lyme patients skew female, and for decades, the medical establishment has “done nothing but call them crazy,” Tal says, “instead of admitting that they just don’t understand what’s going on.”
For Tal, these revelations were electrifying. She dove into the immunology of Lyme disease, focusing in particular on sex differences. In one mouse experiment, she discovered that Lyme bacteria “completely disfigured” the uterus. Yet after delving through decades of Lyme research, she could find only one other study that even documented uterine infection.
This shortfall mirrors larger problems in medical research. “We’ve let men dictate the direction of research funding for so long,” Tal says. Traditionally, studies focused on male subjects, and a 1977 FDA policy barred women from participating in most clinical trials in the US in the wake of birth defects caused by thalidomide. It wasn’t until 1993 that federal law required studies to include women and minorities. This, coupled with other sex- and gender-based medical biases, means that many female-dominated diseases remain under-researched. “So much of this research is being done on males, male mice—male, male, male,” Tal says. “And I’m like, no.”
Tal suspects that the sex disparities seen in chronic Lyme and other pathogen-triggered chronic diseases might come down to the fact that men mount a more robust response to acute infection. This no-holds-barred approach is risky—“Your immune system has the power to kill you,” she notes—but it may mean that men, on average, can kill off more viruses or bacteria in the critical first week of infection. After that window closes, the immune system largely settles back down, Tal says. Pathogens that escaped the initial blitz could take up long-term residence in the body, potentially causing persistent symptoms. And women have a higher chance of chronic illness.
We are beavers all | MIT Technology Review
As efficient creators and stewards of wetlands, beavers provide a hospitable ecosystem for dozens of other creatures, from insects, frogs, and turtles to owls, otters, great blue herons, and even moose and deer. What’s more, by harvesting undergrowth for their dams and creating ponds and bogs that raise the moisture content of the soil, beavers lessen the likelihood that forest fires will spread. As forest fires devastated Oregon in 2021, beaver wetlands remained green and lush, acting as natural firebreaks. On aerial images of the charred landscape, the beaver’s habitat stands out, a wide and verdant ribbon running through the blackened trees.
While not all property owners who live near beaver habitats appreciate the animals’ tree removal services, the pro-beaver movement seems to be getting more organized. In November 2023, some 300 beaver restoration advocates from North America and Europe gathered in the Beaver State (Oregon) for the annual State of the Beaver conference. “Seventy-five percent of the artificial wetland restoration projects done in America over the past 30 years have failed,” conference cofounder Stanley Petrowski told the Daily Yonder. “But when beavers do it, they do it perfectly.”
BeaverCon, held near Baltimore in June of 2022, and the Midwest Beaver Summit, held in Chicago and online in September 2023, attracted similar crowds of humans interested in promoting beaver welfare.
It is, in fact, possible to find ways to allow beavers to continue creating their watery habitats in ways that minimize damage to human infrastructure. For example, devices such as the Beaver Deceiver can be installed to prevent beavers from damming culverts, which often leads to flooding of roads. Skip Lisle, founder of Beaver Deceivers International of Grafton, Vermont, first developed the device in the 1990s to beaver-proof the Penobscot Nation’s 130 miles of roads in Maine. “In all likelihood, they are the first large landowner to completely beaver-proof their property nonlethally,” he says.
Living organic chemical factory
At the base of their tail, all beavers have two castor sacs that store castoreum, a complex, granular substance with a strong and long-lasting musky smell. It is made up of at least 24 different compounds, primarily derived from the barks of the various trees in the beaver’s diet. Beavers deposit castoreum atop foot-high mounds of mud, sticks, and grass to mark the edges of their territory.
Humans have long valued castoreum. About 400 BCE, Hippocrates, a chronicler of natural cures, wrote of its wonderful medical properties. Around 77 CE, the Roman naturalist Pliny listed castoreum as a cure for headaches, constipation, and epilepsy. In the Middle Ages the list of maladies castoreum was said to cure expanded to include dysentery, worms, fleas, pleurisy, gout, rheumatism, insomnia, hysteria, memory loss, and liver problems.
As it turns out, quite a few of the tree barks that beavers prefer contain compounds with known medicinal benefits. Phenols, for example, are often anti-inflammatory and antiseptic and can have antiviral properties. They include salicylic acid (a precursor to aspirin), which can be found in the bark of willow, poplar, and alder trees—all beaver favorites. The beaver’s system functions as a natural pharmacy, extracting these compounds (among others) and secreting them in the form of castoreum.
Humans have also used castoreum for several nonmedical applications, such as in high-end “leather note” perfumes including Shalimar, Givenchy III, and Chanel’s Antaeus. It is an ingredient in some bourbons and vodkas and has been used in Sweden to flavor “Bäverhojt” (literally, beaver shout) schnapps.
Today, most castoreum is harvested in a sterile environment by anesthetizing beavers and expressing the castor sacs near their tails. As a food additive, castoreum extract is “generally recognized as safe,” according to the FDA. But at close to $100 per pound, it’s used sparingly. The total annual US consumption of dried castoreum is around 300 pounds.
Technology & Innovation2 years agoHow to get people to help you
Technology & Innovation2 years agoWhy are scams getting worse?
Sales & Marketing2 years agoVodafone invites Snapchatters to connect with Emma Raducanu virtually
Cryptocurrency2 years agoBitcoin price targets 8-week highs as Ethereum reaches $1.8K
Cryptocurrency1 year agoAre there too many cryptocurrencies?
Technology & Innovation2 years agoHow Log4Shell threatens the Internet
Business & Finance2 years agoHere’s How Apple CEO Earned 500% More In 2021
Business & Finance2 years agoUN Announces Talks To Help Resolve Sudan’s Political Crisis